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Declaration of independence

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A declaration of independence, declaration of statehood or proclamation of independence is an assertion by a polity in a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another state or failed state, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state. In 2010, the UN's International Court of Justice ruled in an advisory opinion in Kosovo that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence",[1] though the state from which the territory wishes to secede may regard the declaration as rebellion, which may lead to a war of independence or a constitutional settlement to resolve the crisis.

List of declarations of independence[edit]

State Declaration Date Association Signatories First recognizing state(s)
Albania Albanian Declaration of Independence November 28, 1912  Ottoman Empire Assembly of Vlorë  Austria-Hungary
 Armenia Declaration of Independence of Armenia May 28, 1918  Soviet Russia Armenian National Congress (1917), Armenian Revolutionary Federation  Ottoman Empire
 Armenia Declaration of State Sovereignty of Armenia August 23, 1990  Soviet Union Levon Ter-Petrosyan and Supreme Council of Armenia secretary Ara Sahakian  Lithuania
 Artsakh Proclamation of the Nagorno Karabakh Republic September 2, 1991  Soviet Union Nagorno-Karabakh Regional and Shahumyan District Councils of People's Deputies of the Azerbaijan SSR
 Azawad Azawadi Declaration of Independence April 6, 2012  Mali National Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
 Azerbaijan Declaration of Independence of Azerbaijan May 28, 1918  Soviet Russia Azerbaijani National Council  Ottoman Empire
 Azerbaijan Act on Restoration of State Independence of Azerbaijan October 18, 1991  Soviet Union Supreme Council of Azerbaijan  Turkey
 Bangladesh Proclamation of Bangladeshi Independence March 26, 1971  Pakistan Constituent Assembly of Bangladesh  Bhutan
 Belarus Third Constituent Charter March 25, 1918  Soviet Russia Rada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic
 Belarus Announcement of the Declaration of Independence of the Soviet Socialist Republic of Byelorussia July 31, 1920  Poland Communist Party (Bolsheviks) of Byelorussia, trade unions  Soviet Russia
 Belarus Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Belarusian Soviet Socialist Republic July 27, 1990  Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the BSSR  Turkey
 Belgium Belgian Declaration of Independence October 4, 1830  Netherlands Provisional Government of Belgium
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnian Declaration of Independence March 1, 1992  Yugoslavia  Bulgaria
Bougainville Bougainville Declaration of Independence May 1990  Papua New Guinea Bougainville Interim Government
 Brazil Declaration of the Independence of Brazil September 7, 1822  Portugal Pedro I of Brazil  United States
 Bulgaria Bulgarian Declaration of Independence September 22, 1908  Ottoman Empire Ferdinand of Bulgaria and the Government of Bulgaria  Russia
 Burma Burmese Declaration of Independence January 4, 1948  United Kingdom
 Catalonia Declaration of the Catalan Republic as a state of the Iberian Federation April 14, 1931 Spain Francesc Macià, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
 Catalonia Declaration of the Catalan state within the Federal Republic of Spain October 6, 1934 Spain Lluís Companys, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
 Catalonia Declaration from the representatives of Catalonia as the Catalan Republic October 27, 2017  Spain
 Central America(present day
 Costa Rica
 El Salvador
Act of Independence of Central America September 15, 1821 Spain
 Chile Chilean Declaration of Independence February 12, 1818 Spain National Congress  Portugal
 Colombia Colombian Declaration of Independence July 20, 1810 Spain
Comoros Comorian Declaration of Independence July 6, 1975  France  Guinea
 Crimea Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Crimea March 11, 2014  Ukraine Supreme Council of Crimea  Russia
 Croatia Declaration of the Establishment of the Sovereign and Independent Republic of Croatia June 25, 1991  Yugoslavia  Iceland
 Czechoslovakia Czechoslovak Declaration of Independence October 18, 1918  Austria-Hungary Czechoslovak National Council  United States
 Dominican Republic Dominican Declaration of Independence February 27, 1844 Haiti  United Kingdom
 East Timor East Timorese declaration of independence November 28, 1975  Portugal  Morocco
 Egypt Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence February 28, 1922  United Kingdom Unilateral grant of independence by the British government  United Kingdom
 Estonia Estonian Declaration of Independence February 24, 1918  Germany
Estonian Salvation Committee  Finland
 Estonia Estonian Reconfirmation of Independence August 20, 1991  Soviet Union Congress of Estonia  Iceland (reconfirmed earlier recognition)
 Finland Finnish Declaration of Independence December 6, 1917  Russia Parliament of Finland  Soviet Russia
 First Mexican Empire
(present day  Mexico)
Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
(real independence)[clarification needed]
September 28, 1821  Spain Supreme Provisional Governmental Board  United Kingdom[2]
Florida Florida's Constitution of 1861 January 10, 1861  United States Florida State Legislature
Galicia Declaration of the Republic of Galicia June 27, 1931 Spain
 Georgia, Democratic Republic of Georgian Declaration of Independence, 1918 May 26, 1918  Soviet Russia Georgian National Council  Germany
 Georgia, Republic of Act of Restoration of State Independence of Georgia April 9, 1991[3]  Soviet Union Supreme Council of the Republic of Georgia   Switzerland
Georgia, State of Georgia's secession declaration January 29, 1861  United States
 Greece Greek Declaration of Independence January 15, 1822  Ottoman Empire First National Assembly  Haiti
 Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau Declaration of Independence September 24, 1973  Portugal
 Haiti Haitian Declaration of Independence January 1, 1804  France Jean-Jacques Dessalines France[4]
Hungary Hungarian Declaration of Independence April 14, 1849 Habsburgs
 Iceland Icelandic Declaration of Independence June 17, 1944  Denmark  United States
 India Declaration of the Independence of India January 26, 1930  United Kingdom
 Indonesia Proclamation of Indonesian Independence August 17, 1945  Netherlands Sukarno & Mohammad Hatta  Kingdom of Egypt[5]
 Iraq Iraq Declaration of Independence October 3, 1932  United Kingdom  United Kingdom
 Ireland Proclamation of the Irish Republic April 24, 1916  United Kingdom Provisional Government of the Irish Republic
Irish Republic Irish Declaration of Independence January 21, 1919  United Kingdom Dáil Éireann  Soviet Russia
 Israel Israeli Declaration of Independence May 14, 1948  United Kingdom Jewish People's Council  United States
Katanga Katangan Declaration of Independence[citation needed] July 11, 1960 Congo-Léopoldville
 Korea Korean Declaration of Independence March 1, 1919  Japan Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea  China
 Kosova Proclamation of the Republic of Kosova September 22, 1992  FR Yugoslavia Assembly of Kosovo  Albania
 Kosovo Kosovo declaration of independence February 17, 2008  Serbia
 UN Administration
"Democratically elected leaders of our people"[a]  Costa Rica
 Latvia Latvian Declaration of Independence November 18, 1918  Germany
 Soviet Russia
People's Council of Latvia  Soviet Russia
 Latvia On the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of Latvia May 4, 1990  Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the Latvian SSR  Iceland
 Liberia Liberian Declaration of Independence July 16, 1847 American Colonization Society Liberian Constitutional Convention  United Kingdom
 Lithuania Act of Independence of Lithuania February 16, 1918  Germany
 Soviet Russia
Council of Lithuania  Germany
 Lithuania Act of the Re-Establishment of the State of Lithuania March 11, 1990  Soviet Union Supreme Council of Lithuania  Iceland
Lower Canada Declaration of Independence of Lower Canada February 22, 1838  United Kingdom Robert Nelson
Macedonia Independence of the Republic of Macedonia September 8, 1991  Yugoslavia  Bulgaria
(present day Malaysia)
Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957 August 31, 1957  United Kingdom Tunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of Malaysia  United Kingdom[6]
Mississippi A Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal Union January 9, 1861  United States
 Moldova Declaration of Independence of the Republic of Moldova August 27, 1991  Soviet Union Parliament of the Republic of Moldova  Romania
 Montenegro Montenegro declaration of independence June 3, 2006  Serbia and Montenegro Assembly of the Republic of Montenegro  Iceland
 Morocco Moroccan Declaration of Independence January 11, 1944 France Istiqlal Party
 Netherlands Act of Abjuration July 26, 1581  Spain Union of Utrecht
Northern America
(present day)  Mexico
Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern America November 6, 1813  Spain Congress of Anáhuac
 Northern Cyprus Declaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus November 15, 1983  Cyprus  Turkey
Northern Epirus Northern Epirote Declaration of Independence February 28, 1914 Albania Provisional Government of Northern Epirus
North Solomons Declaration of Independence of the Republic of the North Solomons September 1, 1975 Territory of Papua and New Guinea (Australia) Unknown  Vatican City
(Kingdom of Norway)
Declaration of Independence of Norway (short after[clarification needed], sovereign under the Swedish monarchy), and the Constitution of Norway May 17, 1814  Denmark-Norway
(As of Treaty of Kiel)
Norwegian Constituent Assembly
 Padania Padanian Declaration of Independence September 15, 1996 Italy
 Pakistan Lahore Resolution March 24, 1940  United Kingdom Muslim League (Pakistan)
 Palestine Palestinian Declaration of Independence November 15, 1988 Palestinian territories

 Jordan (claimed the West Bank until 1988)

Palestinian National Council  Arab League
Peru Act of the Declaration of Independence of Peru July 28, 1821  Spain José de San Martín  Argentina
Philippines Philippine Declaration of Independence June 12, 1898 Spain

 United States

98 representatives of Dictatorial Government of the Philippines[7] (ratified on September 29, 1898, by the Malolos Congress[8])
Provinces of the Río de la Plata
Argentine Declaration of Independence July 9, 1816 Spain Congress of Tucumán  Hawaii
 Rhodesia Rhodesian Unilateral Declaration of Independence November 11, 1965  United Kingdom Ian Smith and the rest of the Cabinet
 Romania Romanian Declaration of Independence May 22, 1877  Ottoman Empire King Carol I
 Russia Belovezha Accords December 12, 1991  Soviet Union Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Bir Lehlou Declaration February 27, 1976  Spanish Sahara Polisario Front  Madagascar
 Scotland Declaration of Arbroath April 6, 1320  England Scottish leaders
Serbia The Proclamation (Proglašenije/Проглашеније) February 1809  Ottoman Empire Karađorđe Petrović and Serbian MPs
 Singapore Proclamation of Singapore[9] August 9, 1965  Malaysia[10][11] Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of Singapore  United Kingdom[12]
 Czechoslovakia Martin Declaration October 30, 1918  Austria-Hungary Slovak National Council  France
 Slovakia Slovak National Council's Declaration of Independence of the Slovak Nation July 17, 1992  Czechoslovakia Slovak National Council
 Slovenia Slovenian Declaration of Independence June 25, 1991  Yugoslavia  Croatia
 Somaliland Somaliland Declaration of Independence May 18, 1991  Somalia
South Carolina Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union December 24, 1860  United States South Carolinians in Charleston
 Sri Lanka Declaration of Independence of Sri Lanka (Then known as "Ceylon") February 4, 1948  United Kingdom
 Texas, Republic of Texas Declaration of Independence March 2, 1836 Mexico  France
Texas, State of A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union February 1, 1861  United States Texas Legislature
 Tibet Tibet's Declaration of Independence February 13, 1913 China 13th Dalai Lama  Mongolia
 Turkmenistan About Independence and Bases of a State System of Turkmenistan October 27, 1991  Soviet Union none  Turkey
 Ukraine IV Universal January 22, 1918  Soviet Russia Central Council of Ukraine
 Ukraine Declaration of Independence of Ukraine August 24, 1991  Soviet Union Verkhovna Rada  Canada
 United States United States Declaration of Independence July 2, 1776[b]  Great Britain Second Continental Congress  Morocco[16][17]
United Tribes of New Zealand Declaration of the Independence of New Zealand October 28, 1835 Māori chiefs  United Kingdom[18]
 Uzbekistan Declaration of Independence August 31, 1991  Soviet Union Supreme Council of Uzbekistan  Turkey
 Venezuela Venezuelan Declaration of Independence July 5, 1811  Spain National Congress
 Vermont Vermont Declaration of Independence January 15, 1777  United States

British Quebec

 Vietnam Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam September 2, 1945  France Hồ Chí Minh  China

See also[edit]

Explanatory notes[edit]

  1. ^ No reference in original Albanian text to the declaration being the work of the Assembly of Kosovo. The language used in the declaration differs from that employed in acts of the Assembly of Kosovo in that the first paragraph commences with the phrase "We, the democratically-elected leaders of our people . . .", whereas acts of the Assembly of Kosovo employ the third person singular. Moreover, the procedure employed in relation to the declaration differed from that employed by the Assembly of Kosovo for the adoption of legislation. It was not transmitted to the Special Representative of the Secretary General and was not published in the Official Gazette of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government of Kosovo. As the practice shows, he would have been under a duty to take action with regard to acts of the Assembly of Kosovo which he considered to be ultra vires. Taking all factors together, the authors of the declaration of independence of 17 February 2008 did not act as one of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government within the Constitutional Framework, but rather as persons who acted together in their capacity as representatives of the people of Kosovo outside the framework of the interim administration.
  2. ^ The Continental Congress voted in favor of the Declaration of Independence on July 2.[14] Versions were not printed until July 4 and later, while the signatories did not sign the Matlack declaration until August.[15]


  1. ^ "Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo" (PDF). Icj-cij.org. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2014-02-14.
  2. ^ "Inglaterra: primer país que reconoce la Independencia de México" (in Spanish). Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
  3. ^ "Act of Restoration of State Independence of Georgia". Archived from the original on 2020-05-20.
  4. ^ Ashmore, Harry S., ed. (1961). "Encyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 11". p. 85. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  5. ^ Mohy, Mahmoud (2017-10-30). "EXCLUSIVE: Indonesian President's Advisor: 'We have a long history with Egypt'". Egypt Today. Retrieved 2022-02-15.
  6. ^ Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957
  7. ^ Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. 2004. p. 162. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.
  8. ^ Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 364. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.
  9. ^ Singapore was forced out of Malaysia by the Malaysian Parliament, and the proclamations were then agreed by the two governments. See the Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965 Archived 2017-06-28 at the Wayback Machine (1985 Rev. Ed.) and the Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  10. ^ Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state
  11. ^ Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state/proclamation of singapore
  12. ^ Singapore Act 1966
  13. ^ Ukraine and Russia: The Post-Soviet Transition by Roman Solchanyk, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0742510182 (page 100)
    Canadian Yearbook of International Law, Vol 30, 1992, University of British Columbia Press, 1993, ISBN 9780774804387 (page 371)
    Szporluk, Roman (24 February 2020). Russia, Ukraine and the Breakup of the Soviet Union. Hoover Press. ISBN 978-0-8179-9543-0., p. 355
  14. ^ A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation : U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates 1774-1875. Library of Congress. 2003. pp. 506–507. Tuesday July 2, 1776 [...] Resolved, That these United colonies are, and, of right, ought to be, Free and Independent States; that they are absolved of all allegiance to the British Crown, and that all political connexion between them and the state of Great Britain, is, and ought to be, totally dissolved.
  15. ^ Coelho, Chris (2013), Timothy Matlack, Scribe of the Declaration of Independence, McFarland, p. 61, ISBN 978-0-7864-7443-1
  16. ^ US-Morocco Diplomatic Relationship Archived 2015-08-12 at the Wayback Machine. Official Web site of the Embassy of the Kingdom of Morocco to the United States of America.
  17. ^ Dolan, Kerry A. (November 21, 2013). "Why Morocco Matters To The U.S." Forbes. Retrieved July 11, 2017.
  18. ^ The Lord Glenelg (25 May 1836), "EXTRACT of a DESPATCH from Lord GLENELG to Major-General Sir RICHARD BOURKE, New South Wales", written at London, Documents > Declaration of Independence, Christchurch: Waitangi Associates, retrieved 22 May 2010

External links[edit]